Jones, S. J., Thornton, J. A., & Andrews, H. B. (2011). Efficacy of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) in reducing public speaking anxiety: A randomized controlled trial. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 3(1), 19-32. doi: 10.9769/EPJ.2011.3.1.SJJ.JAT.HBA
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Perth, Western Australia.
To determine whether EFT is effective compared to a wait-list control (WLC) group in reducing public speaking anxiety.
Randomised controlled trail (number of participants randomised to each group not stated).
A total of 36 volunteers with public speaking anxiety.
Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker (PRCS).
Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24B (part 1: general measure of communication apprehension; part 2: measure of public speaking anxiety).
Subjective Units of Distress Scale.
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
Timed Behavior Checklist (TBCL).
Pre-post measures for all groups.
Screening: PRCS, PRCA-24B.
Pre-intervention: expectation of overcoming PSA.
During intervention: SUDS.
Post-intervention: PRCS, PRCA-24B, STAI, TBCL.
Participants randomised by S. S. Jones (no method reported).
Delivered by 1 of 3 psychologists working in counselling and trained in EFT. SUD scores recorded at 0, 15, 30, and 45 minutes during EFT. Post-intervention completion of PSA: PRCS, PRCA-24B (1 & 2), and STAI. Participants then delivered a 4-minute speech in front of a small group, video recorded, which was later scored with TBCL by independent observers blinded to treatment conditions.
Participants attended counselling service by appointment and completed outcome measures, then (without receiving any interventions).
Pre-post intervention: PRCA and PRCA-24B (1 & 2): ANOVAs (comparison of EFT and WLC).
Post-intervention: PRCS, PRCA-24B (1 & 2), STAI, and TBCL: ANOVAs (comparison of EFT and WLC) on post-intervention measures only.
WLC: comparison of scores (as control and after receiving EFT): within-groups ANOVA (comparison of WLC using Bonferroni adjustment).
During EFT intervention: SUDS: 4 (time: 0, 15, 30, & 45 minute) x 2 (group: EFT & WLC) ANOVA.
Pre-post intervention (PRCS and PRCA-24B [1 & 2])
Significant difference between groups with EFT increasing public speaking confidence (p = 0.012; PRCS) and decreasing public speaking anxiety (PRCA-24B [part 2; p = 0.030]) but not communication apprehension (PRCA-24B [part 1; p = 0.293]).
Post-intervention (PRCS, PRCA-24B [1 & 2], STAI, and TBCL)
Significant difference between groups with EFT decreasing public speaking anxiety (state anxiety; p < 0.001) but non-significant trait anxiety (p = 0.390). No significant differences between groups on TBCL (p = 0.773). WLC (as control and after receiving EFT) PRCA-24B (1 & 2) and STAI (State) analysed together, with public speaking anxiety significantly lower (p < 0.002) for WLC participants after receiving EFT. PRCS and STAI: Trait analysed separately, with public speaking confidence significantly increasing (p = 0005) along with a significant decrease (p = 0.011) in general anxiety. During intervention (SUDS) Significant (p < 0.001) main effect of time: decreased SUD scores from start to end of EFT. No significant differences in SUD scores between groups (p = 0.241) or any significant interactions between group allocation and SUD scores during EFT (p = 0.760).